Eco-Mobility 2025plus Roadmap

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Advanced Driver Assistance Systems

This chapter drafts the path for the radical change from conventional vehicle concepts (SAE level 0) to fully automated driving vehicles (SAE level 5) in the long term. Actually, the huge effort being expended by academic and industrial R&D on numerous research projects, prototype development and systems reliability will lead to an “electronic revolution” inside the vehicle. The stepwise implementation of advanced vehicle control systems on the path to automated driving enabled by sophisticated electronic systems is drafted by SAE, as shown in the following figures.

Automation levels, oriented closely to the definition of BASt project group “Legal consequences of an increase in vehicle automation”

Automation levels,
oriented closely to
the definition of BASt
project group “Legal
consequences of an
increase in vehicle
automation”

Self-driving car evolution

By taking over the driver’s tasks gradually, fully automated vehicles will be the logical extension of advanced vehicle control systems in the long term. Therefore, the functionality, including all the safety aspects, still needs significant R&D effort to enable fully automated vehicles to be viable in the real transport environment.

Self-driving car evolution

Potential effectiveness of combined systems

The expected impact of these applications is to achieve zero fatalities globally and utilize available infrastructure capacity to a maximum, as it is expected that the number of vehicles will continue to increase in the next 20 years. Advanced vehicle control systems mainly aim to increase energy efficiency and safety as well as to improve comfort and enable the communication between vehicle and infrastructure. Since the majority of all accidents is caused by the human element factor, advanced vehicle control systems have the potential to avoid those accidents and therefore, save human life. The chart below shows that an accident avoidance of over 50% is possible for a combination of ABS, ESC, lane keeping assist (LKA), predictive brake assist (PBA), automated emergency braking (AEB), driver vigilance monitoring (DVM), speed limiting systems (SLS) and alcohol interlock (AI).

Potential effectiveness of combined systems

Partial Automated Vehicles
(up to SAE Level 2)

Market Readiness of Technologies for SAE Level 0-2
Short Term 2015–2020 Medium Term 2020–2025 Long Term 2025+
 
  system complete and qualified = TRL 8
  actual system proven in operational environment = TRL 9
  fully established in the market – R&D measures still required (TRL > 9)

V2V-Communication (non safety relevant)

  safety & security reliability cost availability certification
Safety Securtiy Potential to reduce CO2 emissions and the dependency on fossil energy carriers Added value R&D demand for successful implementation on the market Type of project required
0 0 0 0 0 1
0 0 0 1 1 1
0 0 1 1 1 1
0 0 1 1 1 1
V2V-Communication (non safety relevant)
Short Term 2015–2020 Medium Term 2020–2025 Long Term 2025+
Software
data processing TRL 3-4
day-one use cases (CAM/DENM) TRL 4-5
ongoing standardization, encryption algorithm TRL 6
HMI-development TRL 5-8
Hardware
4G (LTE-advanced; LTE proximity service) TRL 5-7
5G according to 5GPP roadmap TRL 1-3
hybrid system [ITS-G5 + cell-based service (UMTS, LTE, 5G,...)] TRL 4
WAVE-equipment (data protocoll USA) TRL 5-6
cloud TRL 6-7
Overview Table

V2I-Communication incl. V2Cloud

  safety & security reliability rapid connecting cost availability certification
Safety Security Potential to reduce CO2 emissions and the dependency on fossil energy carriers Added value R&D demand for successful implementation on the market Type of project required
0 0 0 0 0 1
0 0 0 1 1 1
0 0 1 1 1 1
0 0 1 1 1 1
V2I-Communication incl. V2Cloud
Short Term 2015–2020 Medium Term 2020–2025 Long Term 2025+
traffic guidance TRL 4
road capacity management (e.g. requirements management) TRL 1
ensure data confidence and reliability (rain sensors) TRL 4
backbone communication TRL 5-7
on-road incident management TRL 4-5
data privacy and legal consequences TRL 4-6
standardization (flexibility creating, but not restricting) TRL 5
new use cases (content of messages) TRL 2
Overview Table

X by Wire Components

  cost/efficiency/reliability/ precision/certification
Safety Security Potential to reduce CO2 emissions and the dependency on fossil energy carriers Added value R&D demand for successful implementation on the market Type of project required
0 0 0 0 0 1
0 0 0 1 1 1
0 0 1 1 1 1
0 0 1 1 1 1
X by Wire Components
Short Term 2015–2020 Medium Term 2020–2025 Long Term 2025+
functional safety ISO 26262 TRL 8
steering TRL 6
breaking TRL 8
power train control (engine, transmission, auxiliaries) TRL 8
Overview Table

Sensor Technologies

  safety reliability precision cost reduction of amount of sensors
Safety Security Potential to reduce CO2 emissions and the dependency on fossil energy carriers Added value R&D demand for successful implementation on the market Type of project required
0 0 0 0 0 1
0 0 0 1 1 1
0 0 1 1 1 1
0 0 1 1 1 1
Sensor Technologies
Short Term 2015–2020 Medium Term 2020–2025 Long Term 2025+
virtual sensors/model-based measurement TRL 3-5
structural health monitoring TRL 5-7
sensor models and modeling techniques TRL 4-8
test environment for sensors and actuators TRL 2-4
stereo video camera (daylight and night vision) TRL 8
1-dimension LIDAR TRL 7
intelligent RADAR sensor technology TRL 8
ultrasonic sensors TRL 8
laser scanner TRL 8
Time Of Flight (TOF)-cameras (PMD) TRL 4
the vehicle as precise traffic sensor TRL 2-5
Overview Table

Localization/Positioning (relative and absolute) & Mapping

  safety/increase precision/ reliability/cost reduction
Safety Security Potential to reduce CO2 emissions and the dependency on fossil energy carriers Added value R&D demand for successful implementation on the market Type of project required
0 0 0 0 0 1
0 0 0 1 1 1
0 0 1 1 1 1
0 0 1 1 1 1
Localization/Positioning (relative and absolute) & Mapping
Short Term 2015–2020 Medium Term 2020–2025 Long Term 2025+
completeness of external sources (e.g. high resolution maps, real time updating of additional contents) TRL 6-7
indoor positioning TRL 6-7
GPS, GALILEO, GLONASS TRL 8-9
Overview Table

Predictive Operation & Control

  right-sizing components vehicle efficiency vehicle safety reduce emissions extended lifetime
Safety Security Potential to reduce CO2 emissions and the dependency on fossil energy carriers Added value R&D demand for successful implementation on the market Type of project required
0 0 0 0 0 1
0 0 0 1 1 1
0 0 1 1 1 1
0 0 1 1 1 1
Predictive Operation & Control
Short Term 2015–2020 Medium Term 2020–2025 Long Term 2025+
reliable mandatory routing information TRL 4-5
maneuver based/scenario simulation TRL 6
eco routing TRL 8
hybrid predictive energy management TRL 7-8
coasting assistant TRL 6
e-horizon TRL 7
HMI (e.g. gesture control) TRL 6-8
predictive regenerative 4-wheel braking TRL 5-7
traffic performance quantification under various regimes incl. safety and robustness metrics (beyond level of service, etc.) TRL 2-4
Overview Table

Advanced Test Benches, Environments & Methodologies (Powertrain, Vehicle, Sensors&Actuators) incl. Connectivity

  reduction of real-world / field testing / manage increased complexity / secure communication between vehicles / short time to market / secure and energy efficient development
Safety Security Potential to reduce CO2 emissions and the dependency on fossil energy carriers Added value R&D demand for successful implementation on the market Type of project required
0 0 0 0 0 1
0 0 0 1 1 1
0 0 1 1 1 1
0 0 1 1 1 1
Advanced Test Benches, Environments & Methodologies (Powertrain, Vehicle, Sensors&Actuators) incl. Connectivity
Short Term 2015–2020 Medium Term 2020–2025 Long Term 2025+
GPS stimulation TRL 5-6
torque stimuli: Dyno TRL 9
video stimuli & simulation & testing TRL 6
RADAR, LIDAR, ultrasonic stimuli & simulation & testing TRL 2-4
C2C & C2I simulation TRL 2-4
test environment for sensors and actuators TRL 2-8
safety and security in one and the same system - related test modes, methods & equipment TRL 2-4
Overview Table

Complex Control Architectures

  reducing number of components / increase efficiency / flexibility in function development
Safety Security Potential to reduce CO2 emissions and the dependency on fossil energy carriers Added value R&D demand for successful implementation on the market Type of project required
0 0 0 0 0 1
0 0 0 1 1 1
0 0 1 1 1 1
0 0 1 1 1 1
Complex Control Architectures
Short Term 2015–2020 Medium Term 2020–2025 Long Term 2025+
reliable processing of cognitive data TRL 7-8
dependable power computing TRL 5-6
extended processor performance TRL 3
sensor platforms TRL 2-5
sensor fusion (camera+LIDAR; camera+RADAR; stereo camera, XFCD+stationary traffic sensors) TRL 2-9
open-source software platform for automated driving TRL 4-5
interfaces and message content (standardized message content) TRL 5-6
hierarchy of controls and software modules (master/slave) TRL 4-5
objective assessment of automated vehicle functions TRL 6-7
Overview Table

Data & Information Management (non safety relevant)

  data from three sources (vehicle sensors, I2V, cloud2V) and processing
Safety Security Potential to reduce CO2 emissions and the dependency on fossil energy carriers Added value R&D demand for successful implementation on the market Type of project required
0 0 0 0 0 1
0 0 0 1 1 1
0 0 1 1 1 1
0 0 1 1 1 1
Data & Information Management (non safety relevant)
Short Term 2015–2020 Medium Term 2020–2025 Long Term 2025+
receive & feedback data algorithms (I2C,C2I, C2C) TRL 4-8
algorithm design TRL 3-8
information presentation (HMI) TRL 1-6
sensor fusion data management TRL 7-9
architecture logical/functional (incl. redundant algorithm) TRL 2-8
on-board information model for vehicle and infrastructure TRL 7
on-board information aggregation TRL 7
after sales operational data optimization (e.g. software updates) TRL 7
data synchronization between car and infrastructure TRL 3
paying functions ("car as driving credit card") TRL 6-9
Overview Table

Conditional, High and Full Automation Vehicles (SAE Levels 3-5)

SAE levels 3-5 vehicles require increasing activities in the field of sensors and actuators, integration (components into vehicle as well as vehicle into infrastructure), safety-relevant communication as well as advanced technologies for positioning and vehicle surrounding detection. If they should cooperate, all traffic participants will need to be integrated into a common control concept in the long term.
Market Readiness of Technologies for SAE Level 3
Short Term 2015–2020 Medium Term 2020–2025 Long Term 2025+
 
Market Readiness of Technologies for SAE Level 4
Short Term 2015–2020 Medium Term 2020–2025 Long Term 2025+
 
Market Readiness of Technologies for SAE Level 5
Short Term 2015–2020 Medium Term 2020–2025 Long Term 2025+
 
  system complete and qualified = TRL 8
  actual system proven in operational environment = TRL 9
  fully established in the market – R&D measures still required (TRL > 9)

V2V-Communication Safety Relevant

  safety & security / reliability / rapid connecting / cost / availability / certification / new use cases / policy: reserve 5,9 GHz band only for automotive applications
Safety Security Potential to reduce CO2 emissions and the dependency on fossil energy carriers Added value R&D demand for successful implementation on the market Type of project required
0 0 0 0 0 1
0 0 0 1 1 1
0 0 1 1 1 1
0 0 1 1 1 1
V2V-Communication Safety Relevant
Short Term 2015–2020 Medium Term 2020–2025 Long Term 2025+
extended safety message types (e.g. extended CAM) TRL 3-5
self organizing "swarm intelligence" TRL 2-4
standardization TRL 6
security measures integrated in design TRL 2-4
Overview Table

Complete Vehicle Surrounding Detection

  safety & security / level of integration / improving precision / improving reliability / reducing cost
Safety Security Potential to reduce CO2 emissions and the dependency on fossil energy carriers Added value R&D demand for successful implementation on the market Type of project required
0 0 0 0 0 1
0 0 0 1 1 1
0 0 1 1 1 1
0 0 1 1 1 1
Complete Vehicle Surrounding Detection
Short Term 2015–2020 Medium Term 2020–2025 Long Term 2025+
3-dimensional LIDAR (improving precision and reliability) TRL 6
improved ultrasonic sensors TRL 6-7
integrated radar sensors TRL 6-7
integrated video sensors TRL 6-7
data harvesting and interpretation (application in worst case conditions, traffic signs, obstacles, humans/animals, …) TRL 5
C2X-based surrounding detection TRL 4-6
advanced selective driver warnings/support systems (advanced HMI) TRL 5-6
friction coefficient of the road TRL 6-8
intelligent sensor data fusion to create sufficient model of surrounding environment TRL 5
comparison of surrounding environment to maps (incl. correction feedback to keep maps up to date) TRL 5
advanced data processing methodologies TRL 2-4
advanced overall vehicle status model (MBSE) TRL 8
new sensor technologies TRL 1-3
Overview Table

Automation Enabling New Vehicle Concepts

  safety/comfort/energy efficiency /reducing space requirements
Safety Security Potential to reduce CO2 emissions and the dependency on fossil energy carriers Added value R&D demand for successful implementation on the market Type of project required
0 0 0 0 0 1
0 0 0 1 1 1
0 0 1 1 1 1
0 0 1 1 1 1
Automation Enabling New Vehicle Concepts
Short Term 2015–2020 Medium Term 2020–2025 Long Term 2025+
novel safety concepts TRL 1-8
extreme lightweight concepts (innovative materials, construction) TRL 3-4
new NCAP definitions TRL 6
demand oriented/customized vehicle concepts for different user groups (incl. handicapped/ blind people) TRL 2
Overview Table

Vehicle Integration into Infrastructure (ViI)

  transition from reactive to predictive and interactive traffic management (safety / traffic flow / energy efficiency / capacity utilization) / regulative measures for mandatory data delivered by car
Safety Security Potential to reduce CO2 emissions and the dependency on fossil energy carriers Added value R&D demand for successful implementation on the market Type of project required
0 0 0 0 0 1
0 0 0 1 1 1
0 0 1 1 1 1
0 0 1 1 1 1
Vehicle Integration into Infrastructure (ViI)
Short Term 2015–2020 Medium Term 2020–2025 Long Term 2025+
individualized predictive traveler services TRL 1-3
predictive, automated and capacity oriented routing (infrastructure capacity management) TRL 5
co-operative traffic management (e.g. traffic measures for major incidents) TRL 1
Overview Table

V2V-Communication Safety Relevant, Mandatory

  safety & security/reliability/ rapid connecting/cost/ availability/certification
Safety Security Potential to reduce CO2 emissions and the dependency on fossil energy carriers Added value R&D demand for successful implementation on the market Type of project required
0 0 0 0 0 1
0 0 0 1 1 1
0 0 1 1 1 1
0 0 1 1 1 1
V2V-Communication Safety Relevant, Mandatory
Short Term 2015–2020 Medium Term 2020–2025 Long Term 2025+
redundant systems for safety reasons TRL 2-4
Overview Table

Transport System Level Integration (Step 1)

  increased level of interaction between vehicle and infrastructure/optimized utilization of infrastructure capacity
Safety Security Potential to reduce CO2 emissions and the dependency on fossil energy carriers Added value R&D demand for successful implementation on the market Type of project required
0 0 0 0 0 1
0 0 0 1 1 1
0 0 1 1 1 1
0 0 1 1 1 1
Transport System Level Integration (Step 1)
Short Term 2015–2020 Medium Term 2020–2025 Long Term 2025+
interfaces to other transport modes TRL 4
improve level of prediction in all respects of route transport TRL 2-3
platooning TRL 4-6
cooperative ACC TRL 3-4
fleet management TRL 5-6
overall control architecture TRL 2-4
Overview Table

Advanced Localization/ Positioning (relative and absolute) & Mapping

  safety & security/ increase precision/reliability
Safety Security Potential to reduce CO2 emissions and the dependency on fossil energy carriers Added value R&D demand for successful implementation on the market Type of project required
0 0 0 0 0 1
0 0 0 1 1 1
0 0 1 1 1 1
0 0 1 1 1 1
Advanced Localization/ Positioning (relative and absolute) & Mapping
Short Term 2015–2020 Medium Term 2020–2025 Long Term 2025+
indoor positioning for parking systems TRL 6-7
increasing the position accuracy to approximately +⁄– 3 cm TRL 5-6
data fusion for high precise positioning (dead reckoning & GNSS) TRL 5-7
high precision GPS position of ego vehicle and other vehicles TRL 6
Overview Table

Full Transport SystemLevel Integration

  safety & security/full level of interaction between vehicle and infrastructure/upmost utilization of infrastructure capacity
Safety Security Potential to reduce CO2 emissions and the dependency on fossil energy carriers Added value R&D demand for successful implementation on the market Type of project required
0 0 0 0 0 1
0 0 0 1 1 1
0 0 1 1 1 1
0 0 1 1 1 1
Full Transport System Level Integration
Short Term 2015–2020 Medium Term 2020–2025 Long Term 2025+
interfaces to other transport modes TRL 4
improve level of prediction in all respects of route transport TRL 2
overall control architecture TRL 2-4
Overview Table
Legend
Legend
Pollutant emissions and noise
Potential to reduce CO2 emissions and the dependency on fossil energy carriers
Added value
R&D demand for successful implementation on the market
Safety
Security
GHG reduction WtW
competence in AUT
EU targets
availability of raw materials
Truck
Type of Project Required
Fundamental Research
Industrial Research
Experimental Development
Demonstration

TRL 1 – Basic principles observed

TRL 2 – Technology concept formulated

TRL 3 – Experimental proof of concept

TRL 4 – Technology validated in lab

TRL 5 – Technology validated in a relevant environment

TRL 6 – Technology demonstrated in a relevant environment

TRL 7 – System prototype demonstration in an operational environment

TRL 8 – System complete and qualified

TRL 9 – Actual system proven in an operational environment